Benutzerspezifische Werkzeuge

Journal Articles 1992 - 2001


  • Eisenhofer G., M.D. Esler, I.T. Meredith, A. Dart, R.O. Cannon, A.A. Quyyumi, G. Lambert, J. Chin, G.L. Jennings and D.S. Goldstein. Sympathetic nervous function in human heart as assessed by cardiac spillovers of dihydroxyphenylglycol and norepinephrine. Circulation 85: 1775-1785, 1992.
  • Eisenhofer G., J.J. Smolich and M.D. Esler. Different desipramine-sensitive pulmonary removals of plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine in dogs. American Journal of Physiology 262: L360-L365, 1992.
  • Eisenhofer G., J.J. Smolich and M.D. Esler. Disposition of endogenous adrenaline compared to noradrenaline released by cardiac sympathetic nerves in the anaesthetized dog. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 345: 160-171, 1992.
  • Eisenhofer G., J.J. Smolich and M.D. Esler. Increased cardiac production of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) during sympathetic stimulation in anaesthetized dogs. Neurochemistry International  21: 37-44, 1992.
  • Meredith I.T., G. Eisenhofer, G.W. Lambert, G. L. Jennings, J. Thompson and M.D. Esler. Plasma norepinephrine responses to head-up tilt are misleading in autonomic failure. Hypertension  19: 628-633, 1992.
  • Ferrier C., M.D. Esler, G. Eisenhofer, B.G. Wallin, M. Horne, H.S. Cox, G. Lambert and G.L. Jennings. Increased norepinephrine spillover into the jugular veins in essential hypertension. Hypertension 19: 62-69, 1992.
  • Wallin B.G., M. Esler, P. Dorward, G. Eisenhofer, C. Ferrier, R. Westerman and G. Jennings. Simultaneous measurements of cardiac noradrenaline spillover and sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle in humans. Journal of Physiology  453: 45-58, 1992.
  • Ward J.E., P. Coles, H. Cox, G. Eisenhofer and J.A. Angus. Relationship between the sympatholytic action of nebivolol and hypotension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology  20: 115-124, 1992.



  • Eisenhofer G. Concentrations of noradrenaline at neuronal uptake sites during sympathetic nervous inhibition and activation in rabbits. Neurochemistry International  22: 493-499, 1993.
  • Lenders J.W.M., R. Kvetnansky, K. Pacak, D.S. Goldstein, I.J. Kopin and G. Eisenhofer. Extraneuronal metabolism of endogenous and exogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics  266: 288-293, 1993.
  • Lenders J.W.M., G. Eisenhofer, I. Armando, H.R. Keiser, D.S. Goldstein and I.J. Kopin. Determination of metanephrines in plasma by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Clinical Chemistry  39: 97-103, 1993.
  • Meredith I.T., G. Eisenhofer, G.W. Lambert, E. M. Dewar, G.L. Jennings and M.D. Esler. Cardiac sympathetic nervous activity in congestive heart failure: evidence for increased neuronal norepinephrine release and preserved neuronal uptake. Circulation 88: 136-145, 1993.
  • Goldstein D.S., G. Eisenhofer, B.B. Dunn, I. Armando, J. Lenders, E. Grossman, C. Holmes, K.L. Kirk, S. Bacharach, R. Adams, P. Herschovitch and I.J. Kopin. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation using 6-[18F]fluorodopamine: Initial findings in humans. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 22: 1961-1971, 1993.
  • Rundqvist B., G. Eisenhofer, N. A. Dakak, M. Elam, F. Waagstein and P. Friberg. Cardiac noradrenergic function one year following cardiac transplantation. Blood Pressure 2: 252-261, 1993.
  • Lambert G.W., G. Eisenhofer, G.L. Jennings and M.D. Esler. Regional homovanillic acid production in humans. Life Sciences  53: 63-75, 1993.
  • Ferrier C., G.L. Jennings, G. Eisenhofer, G. Lambert, H.S. Cox, V. Kalff, M. Kelly and M.D. Esler. Evidence for increased noradrenaline release from subcortical brain regions in essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 11: 1217-1227, 1993.



  • Eisenhofer G. Plasma normetanephrine for examination of extraneuronal uptake and metabolism of noradrenaline in rats. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 349: 259-269, 1994.
  • Eisenhofer G. and J.P.M. Finberg. Different metabolism of norepinephrine and epinephrine by catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 268: 1242-1251, 1994.
  • Eisenhofer G., W. Pecorella, K. Pacak, D. Hooper, I.J. Kopin and D.S. Goldstein. The neuronal and extraneuronal origins of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in rats. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 50: 93-107, 1994.   
  • Eisenhofer G. In vivo kinetics of catecholamines. Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 14: 7-8, 1994.
  • Lambert G.W., G. Eisenhofer and M.D. Esler. The influence of aging on the plasma concentration and renal clearance of homovanillic acid. Psychoneuroendocrinology  19: 33-41, 1994.
  • Holmes C., G. Eisenhofer and D.S. Goldstein. Improved assay of plasma dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and other catechols using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Journal of Chromatography  653: 131-138, 1994.



  • Lenders J.W.M., H.R. Keiser, D.S. Goldstein, J.J. Willemsen, P. Friberg, M-C. Jacobs, P.W.C. Kloppenborg, T. Thien and G. Eisenhofer. Plasma metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Annals of Internal Medicine 123: 101-109, 1995.
  • Eisenhofer G., B. Rundqvist, A. Åneman, P. Friberg, N. A. Dakak, I.J. Kopin, M-C. Jacobs and J.W.M. Lenders. Regional release and removal of catecholamines and extraneuronal metabolism to metanephrines. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80: 3009-3017, 1995.
  • Eisenhofer G., P. Friberg, K. Pacak, D.S. Goldstein, D.L. Murphy, C. Tsigos, A.A. Quyyumi, H. G. Brunner and J.W.M. Lenders. Plasma metadrenalines: do they provide useful information about sympatho-adrenal function and catecholamine metabolism? Clinical Science 88: 533-542, 1995.
  • Eisenhofer G., A. Åneman, D. Hooper, C. Holmes, D. Goldstein and P. Friberg. Production and metabolism of dopamine and norepinephrine in mesenteric organs and liver of swine. American Journal of Physiology 268: G641-649, 1995.
  • Åneman A., G. Eisenhofer, L. Fändriks and P. Friberg. Hepatomesentric release and removal of norepinephrine in swine. American Journal of Physiology 268: R924-R930, 1995.
  • Eisenhofer G., P. Friberg, D.S. Goldstein and M. Esler. Differential actions of desipramine on sympathoadrenal release of noradrenaline and adrenaline. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 40: 263-265, 1995.
  • Goldstein D.S., E. Mezey, T. Yamamoto, A. Åneman, P. Friberg and G. Eisenhofer. Is there a third peripheral catecholaminergic system? Endogenous dopamine as an autocrine/paracrine substance derived from plasma DOPA and inactivated by conjugation. Hypertension Research 18: S93-S99, 1995.
  • Åneman A., J. Ponten, L. Fändriks, G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg and B. Biber. Splanchnic and renal sympathetic activity in relation to hemodynamics during isoflurane administration in pigs. Anesthesiology and Analgesia 151:135-142,1995.
  • Dakak N., A.A. Quyyumi, G. Eisenhofer, D.S. Goldstein and R.O. Cannon. Sympathetically mediated effects of mental stress on the cardiac microcirculation of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 76: 125-130, 1995.



  • Eisenhofer G., P. Friberg, B. Rundqvist, A.A. Quyyumi, G. Lambert, D.M. Kaye, I.J. Kopin, D.S. Goldstein and M.D. Esler. Cardiac sympathetic nerve function in congestive heart failure. Circulation 93: 1667-1676, 1996.
  • Eisenhofer G., A. Åneman, D Hooper and P. Friberg. Mesenteric organ production, hepatic metabolism, and renal elimination of norepinephrine and its metabolites in humans. Journal of Neurochemistry 66: 1565-1573, 1996.
  • Eisenhofer G., R. McCarty, K. Pacak, H. Russ and E. Schömig. Disprocynium24, a novel inhibitor of the extraneuronal monoamine tranporter, has potent effects on the inactivation of circulating noradrenaline and adrenaline in conscious rat. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 354: 287-294, 1996.
  • Eisenhofer G., J.W.M. Lenders, J. Harvey-White, M. Ernst, A. Zametkin, D.L. Murphy and I.J. Kopin. Differential inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal monoamine oxidase. Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 296-301, 1996.
  • Lenders J.W.M., G. Eisenhofer, N.G.G.M. Abeling, W. Berger, D. Murphy, C.H. Konings, L.M.B. Wagemakers, I.J. Kopin, A.H. van Gennip and H.G. Brunner. Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isoenzymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97: 1010-1019, 1996.
  • Åneman A., G. Eisenhofer, L. Olbe, J. Dalenbäck, P. Nitescu, L. Fandriks and P. Friberg. Sympathetic discharge to mesenteric organs and liver: Evidence for substantial mesenteric organ norepinephrine spillover. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97: 1640-1646,  1996.
  • Mezey E., G. Eisenhofer, Gy. Harta, S. Hansson,  L. Gould. B. Hunyady and B. J. Hoffman. A novel nonneuronal catecholaminergic system: Exocrine pancreas synthesizes and releases dopamine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 93: 10377-10382, 1996.
  • Goldstein D.S., J.W.M. Lenders, S.G. Kaler and G. Eisenhofer. Catecholamine phenotyping: Clues to the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of neurogenetic disorders. Journal of Neurochemistry 67: 1781-1791, 1996.
  • Smolich J.J., H.S. Cox, G. Eisenhofer and M.D. Esler. Increased spillover and reduced clearance both contribute to rise in plasma catecholamines after birth in lambs. American Journal of Physiology 270: H668-H677, 1996.
  • Rundqvist B., M. Elam, G. Eisenhofer and P. Friberg. Normalization of total body and regional sympathetic hyperactivity in heart failure after heart transplantation. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 15: 516-526, 1996.



  • Eisenhofer G., A. Åneman, D. Hooper, P. Friberg, L. Fändriks, B Hunyady and E. Mezey. Substantial production of dopamine in the human gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 3864-3871, 1997.
  • Rundqvist, B., G. Eisenhofer, M. Elam and P. Friberg. Attenuated cardiac sympathetic responsiveness during dynamic exercise in patients with heart failure. Circulation 95: 940-945, 1997.
  • Rundqvist B., M. Elam, Y. Bergmann-Sverrisdottir, G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg. Increased cardiac adrenergic drive precedes generalized sympathetic activation in human heart failure. Circulation 95: 169-175, 1997.
  • Goldstein D.S., C. Holmes, R.O. Cannon, G. Eisenhofer, I.J. Kopin. Sympathetic cardioneuropathy in dysautonomias. New England Journal of Medicine 336: 696-702, 1997.
  • Hooper D., M. Kawamura, B. Hoffman, I.J. Kopin, E. Mezey and G. Eisenhofer. Tyrosine hydroxylase assay for detection of low levels of enzyme activity in peripheral tissues. Journal of Chromatography 694: 317-324, 1997.
  • Kawamura M., I.J. Kopin, P.F. Kador, S. Sato, O. Tjurmina and G. Eisenhofer. Effects of aldehyde/aldose reductase inhibition on neuronal metabolism of norepinephrine. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 66: 145-148, 1997.
  • Smolich J.J., H.S. Cox, G. Eisenhofer and M.D. Esler. Pulmonary clearance and release of norepinephrine and epinephrine in newborn lambs. American Journal of Physiology 273: L264-274, 1997.
  • Smolich J.J., H.S. Cox, P.J. Berger, A.M. Walker, G. Eisenhofer and M.D. Esler. Left ventricular norepinephrine and epinephrine kinetics at birth in lambs.  Circulation Research 81: 438-47, 1997.
  • Hunyady B., B.J. Hoffman, G. Eisenhofer, S.R. Hansson, E. Mezey. Dopaminergic characteristics of isolated parietal cells from rats. Journal of Physiology (Paris) 91: 247-256, 1997.
  • McCarty R., K. Pacak, D.S. Goldstein and G. Eisenhofer. Regulation of peripheral catecholamine responses to acute stress in young adult and aged F-344 rats. Stress 2, 113-122, 1997.
  • Rundqvist B., G. Eisenhofer, H. Emanuelsson, P. Albertsson and P. Friberg.  Intracoronary blockade of angiotensin-converting enzyme in humans: interaction with cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission? Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 161: 15-22, 1997.
  • Johansson M., B. Rundqvist, G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg. Cardio-renal epinephrine kinetics: evidence for neuronal release in the human heart. American Journal of Physiology 273: H2178-H2185, 1997.
  • Åneman A., J. Ponten, L. Fandriks, G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg and B. Biber. Hemodynamic, sympathetic and angiotensin II responses to PEEP ventilation before and during administration of isoflurane. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 41: 41-48, 1997.
  • Åneman A., A. Pettersson, G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg, M. Holm, C. von Bothmer, and L. Fändriks. Sympathetic and renin-angiotensin activation during graded hypovolemia in pigs: impact on mesenteric perfusion and duodenal mucosal function. Shock 8: 378-384, 1997.
  • Ernst M., L.L. Liebenauer, T. Tebeka, P.H. Jons, G. Eisenhofer, D.L. Murphy and A.J. Zametkin. Selegiline in ADHD Adults. Plasma monoamines and monoamine metabolites. Neuropsychopharmacology 16: 276-284, 1997.
  • Murphy D.L., K. Sims, G. Eisenhofer, B. Greenberg, T. George, R. Butler, F. Berlin, A. Zametkin, M. Ernst and X.O. Breakefield. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon? Journal of Neural Transmission Suppl 52:29-38, 1997.



  • Eisenhofer G., H. Keiser, P. Friberg, E. Mezey, T-T Huynh, B. Hiremagalur, T. Ellingson, S. Duddempudi and J.W.M. Lenders. Plasma metanephrines are markers of pheochromocytoma produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase within tumors. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83: 2175-2185, 1998.
  • Eisenhofer G. and J.W.M. Lenders. Clues to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma from the differential tissue metabolism of catecholamines. Advances in Pharmacology 42: 374-377, 1998.
  • Eisenhofer G., B. Rundqvist and P. Friberg. Determinants of cardiac tyrosine hydroxylase activity during exercise-induced sympathetic activation in humans. American Journal of Physiology 43: R626-R634, 1998.
  • Kopin I.J., B. Runqvist, P. Friberg, J. Lenders, D.S. Goldstein and G. Eisenhofer. Different relationships of spillover to release of norepinephrine in human heart, kidneys, and forearm. American Journal of Physiology 275: R165-R173, 1998
  • Mezey E., G. Eisenhofer, S. Hansson, B. Hunyady and B. J. Hoffman Dopamine produced by the stomach may act as a paracrine/autocrine hormone in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 67: 336-348, 1998.
  • Boulton A. and G. Eisenhofer. Catecholamine metabolism: From molecular understanding to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Advances in Pharmacology 42: 273-292, 1998.
  • Lenders J.W.M., H.G. Brunner, D.L. Murphy and G. Eisenhofer. Genetic deficiencies of monoamine oxidase enzymes: A key to understanding the function of the enzymes in humans. Advances in Pharmacology 42: 297-301, 1998.
  • Goldstein D.S., C. Holmes, R.O. Cannon, G. Eisenhofer and I.J. Kopin. Sympathetic cardioneuropathy in dysautonomias. Advances in Pharmacology 42: 615-619, 1998.



  • Eisenhofer G., J.W.M. Lenders, W.M. Linehan, M.M. Walther, D.S. Goldstein and H.R. Keiser. Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. New England Journal of Medicine  340: 1872-1879, 1999.
  • Eisenhofer G., M.W.H. Coughtrie and D.S. Goldstein. Dopamine sulfate: An enigma resolved. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology 26 S41-S53, 1999.
  • Goldstein D.S., K.J. Swoboda, J.M. Miles, S.W. Coppack, A. Aneman, I. Lamensdorf, C. Holmes and G. Eisenhofer. Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84: 2523-2531, 1999.
  • Patel J., G. Eisenhofer, S.W. Coppack amd J.M. Miles. Norepinephrine spillover in forearm and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after eating. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84: 2815-2819, 1999.
  • Böttner A., G. Eisenhofer, D.J. Torpy,  M. Ehrhart-Bornstein, H.R. Keiser, G.P. Chrousos and S.R. Bornstein. Lack of leptin suppression in response to hypersecretion of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma patients. Metabolism 48: 543-545, 1999.
  • Kawamura M., G. Eisenhofer, I.J. Kopin, P.F. Kador, Y.S. Lee, J.-Y. Tsai, S. Fujisawa, M. J. Lizak and S. Sato. Aldose reductase, a key enzyme in the oxidative deamination of norepinephrine in rats. Biochemical Pharmacology 58: 517-524, 1999.
  • Kawamura M., J.P. Schwartz, T. Nomura, I.J. Kopin, D.S. Goldstein, T-T Huynh, D.R. Hooper, J. Harvey-White and G. Eisenhofer. Differential effects of chemical sympathectomy on expression and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and levels of catecholamines and DOPA in peripheral tissues of rats. Neurochemical Research 24: 25-32, 1999.
  • Ellingson T., S. Duddempudi, B.D. Greenberg, D. Hooper and G. Eisenhofer. Determination of differential activities of soluble and membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase in tissues and erythrocytes. Journal of Chromatography B 729: 347-353, 1999.
  • Åneman A., G. Eisenhofer, L. Fandriks, L. Olbe, J. Dalenbäck, P. Nitrescu and P. Friberg. Splanchnic circulation and regional sympathetic outflow during peroperative PEEP ventilation in humans. British Journal of Anaesthsiology 82: 838-842, 1999.
  • Mezey E., G. Eisenhofer, S. Hansson, G. Harta, B.J. Hoffman, K. Gallatz, M. Palkovits, and M. Hunyady Non-neuronal dopamine in the gastrointestinal system. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology 26 S14-S22, 1999.
  • Bornstein S., T. Tajima, G. Eisenhofer, A. Hadan and G. Aguilera. Adrenomedullary function is severely impaired in 21-hydroxylase-deficient mice. FASEB Journal 13: 1185-1194, 1999.
  • Böttner A., G. Eisenhofer and S. Bornstein. Hyperleptinaemia does not correlate with plasma catecholamine levels in chronic heart failure. European Heart Journal 20: 1051-1052, 1999.   
  • Johansson M., M. Elam, B. Rundqvist and G. Eisenhofer, H. Herlitz and P Friberg. Increased sympathetic nerve activity in renovascular hypertension. Circulation 99: 2537-2542, 1999.
  • Rios M., B. Habecker, T. Sasaoka, G. Eisenhofer, H. Tian, S. Landis, D. Chikaraishi and S. Roffler-Tarlov. Catecholamine synthesis is mediated by tyrosinase in the absence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Journal of Neuroscience  19: 3519-3526, 1999.
  • Elman I., D.S. Goldstein, G. Eisenhofer, J. Folio, A.K. Malhotra, C.M. Adler, D. Pickar, and A. Breier. Mechanism of peripheral noradrenergic stimulation by clozapine. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:29-34, 1999.
  • Sato S., M. Kawamura, G. Eisenhofer, I.J. Kopin, S. Fujisawa and P. F. Kador. Aldo-keto reductases in norepinephrine metabolism. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 57: 459-463, 1999.


  • Eisenhofer G., M.M. Walther, H.R. Keiser, J.W.M. Lenders, P. Friberg and K. Pacak. Plasma metanephrines: a novel and cost effective test for pheochromocytoma. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research  33:1157-1169, 2000.
  • Eisenhofer G., K. Pacak, D.S. Goldstein, C. Chen and B. Shulkin. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy of catecholamine systems: impediments to applications in clinical medicine. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 27:611-612, 2000.
  • Merke D.P., G.P. Chrousos, G. Eisenhofer, M. Weise, M.F. Keil, A.D. Rogol, J.J. Van Wyk and S.R. Bornstein. Adrenomedullary Dysplasia and Hypofunction in Patients with Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 343:1362-1368, 2000.
  • Johansson M., M. Elam, B. Rundqvist, G. Eisenhofer, H. Herlitz, G. Jensen and P. Friberg. Differentiated response of the sympathetic nervous system to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertension. Hypertension 36:543-548, 2000.
  • Bland M.L., C.A.M. Jamieson, S.F. Akana, S.R. Bornstein, G. Eisenhofer, M.F. Dallman and H.A. Ingraham. Haploinsufficiency of steroidogenic factor-1 in mice disrupts adrenal development leading to an impaired stress response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 14488-14493, 2000.
  • Bornstein S.R., H. Tian, A. Haidan, A. Böttner, N. Hiroi, G. Eisenhofer, S. M. McCann, G. P. Chrousos and S. Roffler-Tarlov. Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 14742-14747, 2000.
  • Lamensdorf I., G. Eisenhofer,  J. Harvey-White, Y. Hayakawa, K. Kirk, and I.J. Kopin. Metabolic stress in PC12 cells induces the formation of the endogenous dopaminergic neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Journal of Neuroscience Research 60: 552-558, 2000.
  • Lamensdorf I, G. Eisenhofer, J. Harvey-White, A. Nechustan, K. Kirk, and I.J. Kopin. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde potentitates the toxic effects of metabolic stress in PC12 cells. Brain Research 868:191-201, 2000. 
  • Lamensdorf I., L.-P. He, A. Nechushtan, J. Harvey-White, G. Eisenhofer, R. Milan, E. Rojas and I.J. Kopin. Effect of glipizide on dopamine synthesis, release and metabolism in PC12 cells. European Journal of Pharmacology 388: 147-54, 2000.
  • Lamensdorf I., C. Hrycyna, L.-P. He, A. Nechushtan, O. Tjurmina, J. Harvey-White, G. Eisenhofer, E. Rojas and I.J. Kopin. Acidic dopamine metabolites are actively extruded from PC12 cells by a novel sulfonylurea-sensititve transporter. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 361:654-64, 2000.
  • Bottner A., G. Eisenhofer, P. Friberg, B. Rundqvist and S.R. Bornstein. Serum leptin levels in heart failure patients may be altered differently according to clinical stage. European Heart Journal 21: 334-335, 2000.
  • Bottner A, A. Haidan, G. Eisenhofer, K. Kristensen, A.L. Castle, W.A. Scherbaum, H. Schneider, G.P. Chrousos and S.R. Bornstein. Increased body fat mass and suppression of circulating leptin levels in response to hypersecretion of epinephrine in phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT)-overexpressing mice. Endocrinology 141: 4239-4246, 2000.
  • Patel J., S.W. Coppack, A. Rawesh, J.M. Miles and G. Eisenhofer. Regional and total body changes in sympathoadrenal activity in response to eating. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000 24:S156-157, 2000.
  • Koch C.A., G. Eisenhofer and K. Pacak Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Medizinische Klinik 95: 655-656, 2000.
  • Ernst M., A.J. Zametkin, D. Pascualvaca, J.A. Matochik, G. Eisenhofer, D.L. Murphy and R.M. Cohen. Adrenergic and noradrenergic plasma levels in Lesch-Nyhan disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:320-326, 2000.



  • Eisenhofer G., M.M. Walther, T.T. Huynh, S.T. Li, S.R. Bornstein, A. Vortmeyer, M. Mannelli, D.S. Goldstein, W.M. Linehan, J.W. Lenders and K. Pacak. Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 display distinct biochemical and clinical phenotypes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 1999-2008, 2001.
  • Eisenhofer G., Huynh T.-T., Hiroi M. and Pacak K. Understanding catecholamine metabolism as a guide to the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders 2: 297-311, 2001.
  • Eisenhofer G., P. Sullivan and G. Csako. Pheochromocytoma: Improving diagnosis with plasma free metanephrines. Clinical Laboratory News 27:6-8, 2001.
  • Eisenhofer G. Free or total metanephrines for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: What is the difference? Clinical Chemistry 47: 988-989, 2001.
  • Eisenhofer G. The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 90: 1-28, 2001.
  • Pacak K., D.S. Goldstein, J.L. Doppman, B.L. Shulkin, R. Udelsman and G. Eisenhofer. A “pheo” lurks: Novel approaches for locating occult pheochromocytoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 3641-3646, 2001.
  • Pacak K., W.M. Linehan WM, G. Eisenhofer, M.M. Walther and D.S. Goldstein. Recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Annals of Internal Medicine 134: 315-329, 2001.
  • Pacak K., G. Eisenhofer, J.A. Carrasquillo, C.C. Chen, S.T. Li, and D.S. Goldstein. 6-[18F]Fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. Hypertension 38: 6-8,  2001.
  • Pacak K., T. Fojo, D.S. Goldstein, G. Eisenhofer, M.M. Walther, W.M. Linehan, L. Bachenheimer, J. Abraham and B.J. Wood. Radiofrequency ablation : A novel approach for treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93: 648-649, 2001.
  • Zuckerman-Levine, N., D. Tiosano, G. Eisenhofer, S. Bornstein and Z. Hochberg. The importance of adrenocortical glucocorticoids for adrenomedullary and physiological response to stress: A study in isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 5920-5924, 2001.